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The links herein are ones crew members find particularly useful in both professional and personal capacities. NOTE: a number of these links will navigate away from Polycrew.
ClassDescriptionSummaryLink
Preload Influences on Fastener Fatigue LifeOlson, Tyler. "Preload Influences on Fastener Fatigue Life." Fastener Technology International Aug/Sept 2015: 36-37.
An article showing how achieving and maintaining a high joint clamp load will reduce the cyclical load amplitude on a fastener and thereby increase fatigue life.
Fastenal EngineeringFastenal leads the fastener distribution industry for knowledge of fasteners and providing customer resources, trainings, and services. Consult with Fastenal for any technical questions you have on fasteners.
RoymechxFrom Roymechx website: "This site provides useful information, tables, schedules and formula related to mechanical engineering and engineering materials. It provides convenient access to data for design engineers and engineering draughtsmen. The site also lists useful engineering standards and includes equipment suppliers."
Bolt ScienceThis website is well named as Bolt Science provides literature, training, softwear and services including consultation as related to joints and fastening.
Industrial Fastener InstituteFrom IFI website on their mission: "To represent the North American fastener manufacturers to its suppliers, customers, the government, and the public at large to advance the competitiveness, products, and innovative technology of the IFI Member Companies in a global marketplace."
The IFI is the primary fastener database and resource outside of the standards organizations (e.g. ASTM, ISO, SAE, ASME).
Hydrogen Embrittlement in Fasteners, Research Paper
BootstrapBootstrap is the foundation on which this website was built. Bootstrap makes it easy to develop a responsive webpage for all screen sizes.
InkscapeFrom the Inkscape website: "Inkscape is professional quality vector graphics software which runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows desktop computers." This program permits users to create their own SVG files (SVG stands for Scalable Vector Graphics) such as the icon to the right. This program is very powerful and packed with features.
IcoMoonIcoMoon has an app that is a free online service that allows users to create the code files necessary to incorporate SVG files into websites.
SketchUpSketchUp is a powerful 3D modeling program that permits the do it yourself person to test their hand at design. It is a fantastic program!

Fastener Related Equations


This document is only available in PDF format due to its equation heavy nature.

PDF


Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor

Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

Socket Set Screws are Designed for Compression Only


  1. Abstract

    Specifications which define requirements for socket set screws (SSS), such as ASTM F912 or ISO 898-5, state this style of product shall be used for compression applications only. Socket set screws that meet industry standard specifications have been known to fracture due to tensile loads. If the SSS ever engages two internally tapped components at the same time there is a risk of tensile loads being applied to the SSS.


  2. Specifications

    ASTM F912, Clause 1.3: “These set screws are intended for compression applications only and are not customarily subjected to embrittlement tests. For tensile applications, consult with the manufacturer for proper alloy and hardness.”

    ISO 898-5, Clause 1: “Fasteners in conformance with this part of ISO 898 are classified to specified hardness classes and are intended for use under compressive stress only.”


  3. Discussion

    Each fastener made to an industry specification has been designed to serve a specific purpose. For example, structural bolts such as ASTM F3125 Grade A325 are designed for high strength steel-to-steel connections; i.e. structures for bridges, buildings, and stadiums. A designer would not use a structural bolt for a wood-to-concrete application. The same holds true for SSS; they are designed for the purpose of preventing relative motion of two components, e.g. a collar with a tapped hole and a shaft.

    Through hardened SSS are typically made from medium carbon low alloy steel that have been quench and tempered to 45-53 HRC. Though no specific minimum tempering temperature is required for SSS specifications, a common temper is 650 °F. With all companies looking to lower costs, the economy alloys that are used today require a low tempering temperature to assure hardness requirements are still met. This leaves the SSS material with little toughness/ductility yet excellent compressive capabilities.

    When SSS are used in tension a common delayed failure mode is hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). In this case, though the failure mode of the SSS is HIC, the fundamental root cause is this fastener is not designed for the intended application, i.e. tension loads.

    If a SSS geometry is necessary for a particular application involving tensile loads applied to the fastener, then, a unique fastener must be designed and fabricated. The alloy and material conditions need to reflect the design criteria and both purchaser and supplier need to agree to the requirements and test procedures of the part.


Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor

PDF


Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

“Williams” Washers Cannot Support Bending Stresses


  1. Abstract

    “Williams” washers (WW) are excellent when used as spacers or when subjected to purely compressive stresses. When they are used under the head of a bolt or nut, the stresses are never purely compression. When WW experience a tensile stress (imagine a washer bending while used in a slotted hole) they tend to fracture perpendicular to the tensile load: this type of part is expected to fail when loaded in bending.


  2. Discussion

    "Williams” washers are typically made from a free machining steel round bar cut into disks and machined to geometry. One common free machining steel used to make these types of washers is AISI 12L14. The MnS stringers in these types of steels aid machinability yet sacrifice mechanical properties. These MnS stringers run along the drawing direction parallel to the axis (Fig 1). Many machine shops will offer customers a reduced price for goods that are fabricated from free machining steels because tool life improves. Note, WW are commonly case hardened to improve their wear resistance.

    Responsive image

    Figure 1: Inclusions in 12L14 steel.

    When free machining steels are stressed in tension parallel to the stringers, or in compression, the steel acts more or less like any other low carbon steel. However, when free machining steels have a tensile stress applied in the transverse direction to the stringers, the strength of the steel is greatly reduced as compared to other low carbon steels lacking these impurities (aka stringers).

    Nuts and bolts rarely apply a purely compressive stress to a washer; most washers experience bending stresses when used with fasteners. This is because mating holes can be oversized (Fig 2), slotted, and/or rough as well as the bearing surface of the fastener typically being smaller than the washer bearing surface. The surface of the washer in contact with the fastener experiences more compressive stresses and the surface in contact with the mating joint member experiences more tensile stresses. These bending tensile stresses (Fig 3) act on the WW in the direction perpendicular to the stringers.

    Responsive image

    Figure 2: This hole size is exaggerated to highlight how bending loads could be applied to a washer.

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    Figure 3: Forces acting on the washer would create a bending load. This would put the washer face in contact with the hole in tension; therefore most commonly cracks initiate from this face of the washer.


    Most commonly when WW fracture it was because they were used in bending and not because they were unexpectedly brittle or had “too many” inclusions. “Williams” washers were never designed nor intended for bending stresses; standard low carbon steel flat washers or through hardened flat washers should be used in such applications. “Williams” washers should only be used in applications known to apply purely compressive stresses or as spacers on a shaft to maintain a position of another component.


Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor

Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

Is Welding Heat Treated Fasteners Allowed?


  1. Abstract

    To answer the title’s question: No. Welding on heat treated fasteners would significantly alter their microstructure in the weld and heat affected zone. This microstructural disruption would adversely affect the strength of the fastener. Therefore welding on heat treated fasteners is not advised. Welding on a fastener not specifically designed to be welded will likely void any warrantee on the product.


  2. Discussion

    For the purposes of this document only steel fasteners are considered. Heat treated fasteners should be considered synonymous with high strength fasteners, e.g. Grade 5, Class 8.8 or above. Fastener mechanical property specifications such as ISO 898-1, SAE J429, and numerous ASTM specs, closely control their chemical composition, microstructure, hardness, tensile properties, etc., in order to assure the final fastener is structurally sound and has predictable and repeatable performance. While all aspects of manufacturing and processing have an influence on the final conditions of the fastener, the foundation that establishes its properties is the chemical composition and microstructure. If the chemistry is impure, contains inclusions, tramp elements, etc., these can adversely affect the final properties by weakening the matrix or supplying a catalyst for embrittlement. Likewise if the microstructure is uncontrolled or has incomplete conversion to, e.g. martensite, then the final properties will be affected. To create the microstructure necessary to meet many fastener specifications (i.e. ≥90% tempered martensite) we are typically heat treating the steel by annealing (~1600 °F), quenching (e.g. oil) and tempering (800-1100 °F, depends on the fastener spec).

    When steel joints are formed via welding the harshly simplified process is: joint members locally melt at the interface and re-solidify, fusing the joint members in a permanent high strength connection. Depending on their chemical composition, steels have a range of melting point temperatures which are typically 2500-2700 °F; pure iron melts at 2800 °F. Melting a steel completely resets the microstructure in the weld and alters the microstructure in the heat affected zone (HAZ). If joint members were heat treated their microstructure, and therefore their strength characteristics, would have been erased within the weld and severely disrupted within the HAZ.

    Manufacturers stand behind their product 100%; if they do not, they are not a reputable manufacturer. The warrantee provided by the manufacturer is something every product user does not want to void. When a fastener is welded the part has been altered by the user; no longer does the fastener have the geometry, microstructure, strength, etc., that it did when it was first produced. After welding, effectively the user has become the manufacturer as the user has chosen to alter the part from its original design. The exception to this would be fasteners specifically designed to be welded upon such as weld studs, weld nuts, ASTM A307 Grade A and B with S1, ASTM F1554 Grade 55 with S1.


Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor

PDF


Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

Fasteners With Similar Strengths


  1. Abstract

    Below is a list of fastener specifications, the product designation (i.e. Grade or Class), and a number of the listed mechanical properties from those specifications. For the inch series parts (ASTM and SAE), it is strange to look at these Grades and see only minor changes to mechanical properties and realize entire specifications had been written independently. The work needed to create and maintain these unique specifications is significant. Note, there is primarily only one mechanical property specification for metric fasteners (ISO 898-1). Perhaps ISO is on to something by only having one spec.

  2. Comments

    Take note of the similarities between:

    • ISO 898-1 Class 4.6, ASTM A307 Grade A and B, ASTM F1554 Grade 36, and SAE J429 Grade 2.
    • ISO 898-1 Class 8.8, SAE J429 Grade 5, ASTM A193/A193M Grade B7, ASTM A320 Grade L7, ASTM A449, and ASTM A354 Grade BC.
    • ISO 898-1 Class 10.9, SAE J429 Grade 8, and ASTM A354 Grade BD.
    • ISO 898-1 Class 12.9, Grade 9, and ASTM A574.

    Jump to:


  3. Tables

TABLE 1: ISO 898-1, Mechanical Properties of Fasteners Made of Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel, Part 1
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ISO 898-1Cl 4.6≥1.6, ≤39 mm240 MPa
[34.8 ksi]
400 MPa
[58.0 ksi]
67-95 HRB22(na)Carbon steel,
carbon steel
with additives
ISO 898-1Cl 8.8≥5, ≤16 mm640 MPa
[92.8 ksi]
800 MPa
[116 ksi]
22-32 HRC1252Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel
ISO 898-1Cl 8.8>16, ≤39 mm660 MPa
[95.7 ksi]
830 MPa
[120.4 ksi]
23-34 HRC1252Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel
ISO 898-1Cl 10.9≥1.6, ≤39 mm940 MPa
[136 ksi]
1040 MPa
[151 ksi]
32-39 HRC948Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel
ISO 898-1Cl 12.9≥1.6, ≤39 mm1100 MPa
[160 ksi]
1220 MPa
[177 ksi]
39-44 HRC844Alloy steel

ISO 898-1 COMMENTS: These fasteners are common in the industry. Note, these Classes can be used to fabricate fasteners with diameters outside the ranges listed above, however, because the specification does not define requirements for sizes outside the diameter ranges, perhaps it is a good idea for the purchaser and supplier to agree on what the expectations will be.

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TABLE 2: ASTM A307, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts, Studs, and Threaded Rod 60,000 PSI Tensile Strength
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A307Gr A≥1/4, ≤4 in36 ksi (a)60 ksi69-100 HRB18(na)Carbon steel
ASTM A307Gr B≥1/4, ≤4 in36 ksi (a)60-100 ksi69-95 HRB18(na)Carbon steel

ASTM A307 COMMENTS: Grade A are far more common than Grade B. Grade A bolts are also more common than SAE J429 Grade 2. Grade B are usually specified when it is critical for the fastener to fail before the application fails; hence Grade B's specified maximum tensile strength. By specifying a maximum, design teams can appropriately specify stronger application materials.
(a) Though the specification ASTM A307 does not define a yield strength, 36 ksi has been a commonly assumed stress.

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TABLE 3: ASTM F1554, Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM F1554Gr 36≥1/2, ≤4 in36 ksi58-80 ksi(na)2340Carbon steel
ASTM F1554Gr 55≥1/2, ≤4 in55 ksi75-95 ksi(na)2130Ref. spec.
ASTM F1554Gr 105≥1/2, ≤3 in105 ksi125-150 ksi(na)1545Ref. spec.

ASTM F1554 COMMENTS: This is an anchor bolt specification. F1554 will sometimes be requested in threaded rod. These Grades can be made into threaded rod, but, it is not very common. Often when F1554 Grade 36 threaded rod is requested, ASTM A307 Grade A is offered. Often when F1554 Grade 105 threaded rod is requested ASTM A193 Grade B7 is offered.

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TABLE 4: SAE J429, Mechanical and Material Requirements for Externally Threaded Fasteners
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
SAE J429Gr 2≥1/4, ≤3/4 in57 ksi74 ksi80-100 HRB1835Low or medium
carbon steel
SAE J429Gr 2>3/4, ≤1 1/2 in36 ksi60 ksi70-100 HRB1835Low or medium
carbon steel
SAE J429Gr 5≥1/4, ≤1 in92 ksi120 ksi25-34 HRC1435Medium carbon steel,
carbon boron steel
SAE J429Gr 5>1, ≤1 1/2 in81 ksi105 ksi19-30 HRC1435Medium carbon steel,
carbon boron steel
SAE J429Gr 8≥1/4, ≤1 1/2 in130 ksi150 ksi33-39 HRC1235Carbon boron steel,
medium carbon steel,
alloy steel

SAE J429 COMMENTS: These fasteners are common in the industry. When Grade 5 fasteners are requested in a diameter >1 1/2 in., often ASTM A449 is offered. When Grade 8 fasteners are requested in a diameter >1 1/2 in., often ASTM A354 Grade BD is offered. If you are one of these people requesting a SAE J429 fastener >1 1/2 in., do not reinvent the wheel, use ASTM A307 or ASTM A449 or ASTM A354 Grade BD.

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TABLE 5: ASTM A193/A193M, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A193Gr B7M≤4 in80 ksi100 ksi99 HRB, max1850Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A193Gr B7M>4, ≤7 in75 ksi100 ksi99 HRB, max1850Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A193Gr B7≤2 1/2 in105 ksi125 ksi35 HRC, max1650Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A193Gr B7>2.5, ≤4 in95 ksi115 ksi35 HRC, max1650Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A193Gr B7>4, ≤7 in75 ksi100 ksi35 HRC, max1650Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A193Gr B16≤2 1/2 in105 ksi125 ksi35 HRC, max1850Cr-Mo-V steel
(UNS K14072)
ASTM A193Gr B16>2.5, ≤4 in95 ksi110 ksi35 HRC, max1745Cr-Mo-V steel
(UNS K14072)
ASTM A193Gr B16>4, ≤8 in85 ksi100 ksi35 HRC, max1645Cr-Mo-V steel
(UNS K14072)

ASTM A193/A193M COMMENTS: A193/A193M is written for high temperature applications. Note the similarities between A193 and ASTM A320. That said, ASTM A320 was written for low temperature applications.

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TABLE 6: ASTM A320/A320M, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for Low-Temperature Service
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A320Gr L7M≤2 1/2 in80 ksi100 ksi99 HRB, max1850Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A320Gr L7≤2 1/2 in105 ksi125 ksi35 HRC, max1650Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4140/4142/4145)
ASTM A320Gr L43≤4 in105 ksi125 ksi35 HRC, max1650Ni-Cr-Mo steel
(AISI 4340)

ASTM A320/A320M COMMENTS: A320/A320M is written for low temperature applications. Note the similarities between A320 and ASTM A193. That said, ASTM A193 was written for high temperature applications. A320 often mirrors A193 for mechanical properties, except, A320 has Charpy V-notch impact energy absorption requirements.

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TABLE 7: ASTM A449, Standard Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A449(na)≥1/4, ≤1 in92 ksi120 ksi25-34 HRC1435Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel,
alloy boron steel
ASTM A449(na)>1, ≤1 1/2 in81 ksi105 ksi19-30 HRC1435Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel,
alloy boron steel
ASTM A449(na)>1 1/2, ≤3 in58 ksi90 ksi183-235 Brinell1435Carbon steel,
carbon boron steel,
alloy steel,
alloy boron steel

ASTM A449 COMMENTS: Because A449 is nearly identical to SAE J429 Grade 5, they occupy the same market share. As typical with supply and demand, the industry chose to pick one as the primary spec to manufacture parts to; in this case the more common spec for 1/4 to 1 1/2 in. diameter is SAE J429 Grade 5. ASTM A449 takes over market share when SAE J429 Grade 5 fasteners are requested >1 1/2 in..

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TABLE 8: ASTM F835, Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket Button and Flat Countersunk Head Cap Screws
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM F835(na)≥#0, ≤1/2 in(b)145 ksi39-45 HRC(na)(na)Alloy steel
ASTM F835(na)>1/2, ≤1 1/2 in (a)(b)135 ksi37-45 HRC835Alloy steel

ASTM F835 COMMENTS: These fasteners are common in the industry. It is suggested in F835 to use these fasteners similar to how other 120 ksi tensile strength fasteners would be used.
(a) ASTM F835 button heads max diameter = 5/8 in while flat heads max diameter = 1 1/2 in.
(b) ASTM F835 has a yield strength greater than the tensile strength. This oddity is due to the reduced tensile strength a full size fastener has based on its head style (there is simply not enough material in the head to maintain tensile strength consistent with ASTM A574).

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TABLE 9: ASTM A354, Standard Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A354Gr BC≥1/4, ≤2 1/2 in109 ksi120 ksi26-36 HRC1650Alloy steel,
alloy boron steel
ASTM A354Gr BC>2 1/2, ≤4 in99 ksi115 ksi22-33 HRC1650Alloy steel,
alloy boron steel
ASTM A354Gr BD≥1/4, ≤2 1/2 in130 ksi150 ksi33-39 HRC1440Alloy steel,
alloy boron steel
ASTM A354Gr BD>2 1/2, ≤4 in115 ksi140 ksi31-39 HRC1440Alloy steel,
alloy boron steel

ASTM A354 COMMENTS: Because Grade BD has so many similarities to SAE J429 Grade 8, they occupy the same market share. As typical with supply and demand, the industry chose to pick one as the primary spec to manufacture parts to; in this case the more common spec for 1/4 to 1 1/2 in. diameter is SAE J429 Grade 8. ASTM A354 Grade BD takes over market share when SAE J429 Grade 8 fasteners are requested >1 1/2 in..

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TABLE 10: No Standardized Specification Controls "Grade 9"
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
FastenalGr 9≥1/4, ≤1 1/4 in153 ksi180 ksi38-42 HRC1035AISI 8637/
8640/8740
LawsonTru-Torq≥1/4, ≤1 1/4 in(?)180 ksi38-42 HRC(?)(?)(?)
PFCPFC9≥1/4, ≤1 1/4 in(?)180 ksi38-42 HRC(?)(?)(?)
BBIL9≥1/4, ≤1 1/4 in(?)180 ksi38-42 HRC(?)(?)(?)
Barnes GroupBowmalloy≥1/4, ≤1 1/8 in(?)up to 200 ksi(?)(?)(?)(?)

Grade 9 COMMENTS: These fasteners are common in the industry. All "Grade 9" fasteners are made to proprietary specifications. Grade 9, along with ASTM A574 and ISO 898-1 Class 12.9, are the highest strength industry standardized fasteners. Note, in 2013 Brighton-Best International (BBI) purchased Porteous Fastener Company (PFC).

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TABLE 11: ASTM A574, Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket-Head Cap Screws
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A574(na)≥#0, ≤1/2 in153 ksi180 ksi39-45 HRC1035Alloy steel
ASTM A574(na)>1/2, ≤4 in153 ksi170 ksi37-45 HRC1035Alloy steel

ASTM A574 COMMENTS: These fasteners are common in the industry. A574, along with Grade 9 and ISO 898-1 Class 12.9, are the highest strength industry standardized fasteners.

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TABLE 12: ASTM A193/A193M, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
Hardness
(max)
EL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 1≤3/4 in30 ksi75 ksi100 HRB305018-8
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 1>3/4 in30 ksi75 ksi96 HRB305018-8
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 2≤3/4 in100 ksi125 ksi35 HRC123518-8
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 2>3/4, ≤1 in80 ksi115 ksi35 HRC153518-8
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 2>1, ≤1 1/4 in65 ksi105 ksi35 HRC203518-8
ASTM A193Gr B8, Cl 2>1 1/4, ≤1 1/2 in50 ksi100 ksi35 HRC284518-8
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 1≤3/4 in30 ksi75 ksi100 HRB305016-10-2
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 1>3/4 in30 ksi75 ksi96 HRB305016-10-2
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 2≤3/4 in95 ksi110 ksi35 HRC154516-10-2
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 2>3/4, ≤1 in80 ksi100 ksi35 HRC204516-10-2
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 2>1, ≤1 1/4 in65 ksi95 ksi35 HRC254516-10-2
ASTM A193Gr B8M, Cl 2>1 1/4, ≤1 1/2 in50 ksi90 ksi35 HRC304516-10-2

ASTM A193/A193M COMMENTS: A193/A193M is written for high temperature applications. Class 1 are more common than Class 2.

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TABLE 13: ASTM F593, Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bolts, Hex Cap Screws, and Studs
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ASTM F593AG 1, CW,
F593C
≥1/4,
≤5/8 in
65 ksi100-150 ksi95 HRB-
32 HRC
20(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 1, CW,
F593D
≥3/4,
≤1 1/2 in
45 ksi85-140 ksi80 HRB-
32 HRC
25(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 2, CW,
F593G
≥1/4,
≤5/8 in
65 ksi100-150 ksi95 HRB-
32 HRC
20(na)316/316L
ASTM F593AG 2, CW,
F593H
≥3/4,
≤1 1/2 in
45 ksi85-140 ksi80 HRB-
32 HRC
25(na)316/316L
ASTM F593AG 1, SH,
F593A
≥1/4,
≤5/8 in
95 ksi120-160 ksi24-36 HRC12(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 1, SH,
F593B
≥3/4,
≤1 in
75 ksi110-150 ksi20-32 HRC15(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 1, SH,
F593C
≥1 1/8,
≤1 1/4 in
60 ksi100-140 ksi95 HRB-
30 HRC
20(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 1, SH,
F593D
≥1 3/8,
≤1 1/2 in
45 ksi95-130 ksi90 HRB-
28 HRC
28(na)18-8
ASTM F593AG 2, SH,
F593E
≥1/4,
≤5/8 in
95 ksi120-160 ksi24-36 HRC12(na)316/316L
ASTM F593AG 2, SH,
F593F
≥3/4,
≤1 in
75 ksi110-150 ksi20-32 HRC15(na)316/316L
ASTM F593AG 2, SH,
F593G
≥1 1/8,
≤1 1/4 in
60 ksi100-140 ksi95 HRB-
30 HRC
20(na)316/316L
ASTM F593AG 2, SH,
F593H
≥1 3/8,
≤1 1/2 in
45 ksi95-130 ksi90 HRB-
28 HRC
28(na)316/316L

ASTM A593 COMMENTS: AG – alloy group. CW – cold worked. SH – strain hardened. F593C, F593D, F593G, F593H fasteners are common in the industry.

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TABLE 14: ISO 3506-1, Mechanical Properties of Corrosion-Resistant Stainless Steel Fasteners, Part 1: Bolts, Screws and Studs
StandardGrade/
Class
DiameterYield
Stress
Tensile
Stress
HardnessEL
(%)
RA
(%)
Material
ISO 3506-1A2-50≤39mm210 MPa
[30.5 ksi]
500 MPa
[72.5 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)18-8
ISO 3506-1A2-70≤39mm450 MPa
[65.2 ksi]
700 MPa
[101.5 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)18-8
ISO 3506-1A2-80≤39mm600 MPa
[87.0 ksi]
800 MPa
[116.0 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)18-8
ISO 3506-1A4-50≤39mm210 MPa
[30.5 ksi]
500 MPa
[72.5 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)16-10-2
ISO 3506-1A4-70≤39mm450 MPa
[65.2 ksi]
700 MPa
[101.5 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)16-10-2
ISO 3506-1A4-80≤39mm600 MPa
[87.0 ksi]
800 MPa
[116.0 ksi]
(na)(na)(na)16-10-2
ISO 3506-1C1-50≤39mm250 MPa
[36.3 ksi]
500 MPa
[72.5 ksi]
155-220 HV(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1C1-70≤39mm410 MPa
[59.5 ksi]
700 MPa
[101.5 ksi]
20-34 HRC(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1C1-110≤39mm820 MPa
[118.9 ksi]
1100 MPa
[159.5 ksi]
36-45 HRC(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1C3-80≤39mm640 MPa
[92.8 ksi]
800 MPa
[116.0 ksi]
21-35 HRC(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1C4-50≤39mm250 MPa
[36.3 ksi]
500 MPa
[72.5 ksi]
155-220 HV(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1C4-70≤39mm410 MPa
[59.5 ksi]
700 MPa
[101.5 ksi]
20-34 HRC(na)(na)Martensitic
ISO 3506-1F1-45≤39mm250 MPa
[36.3 ksi]
450 MPa
[65.3 ksi]
135-220 HV(na)(na)Ferritic
ISO 3506-1F1-60≤39mm410 MPa
[59.5 ksi]
600 MPa
[87.0 ksi]
180-285 HV(na)(na)Ferritic

ASTM ISO 3506-1 COMMENTS: A2 is commonly 304 or 302HQ but not required to be. 18-8 is generic callout for an austenitic stainless steel with ~18% Cr & ~8% Ni. A4 is commonly 316 or 316L but not required to be. 16-10-2 is a generic callout for an austenitic stainless steel with ~16% Cr, ~10% Ni & ~2% Mo. C1 is commonly 410 but not required to be. A2-70 and A4-70 fasteners are common in the industry. A2-80 and A4-80 are the next most common ISO 3506-1 designations.

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ADDITIONAL NOTES THAT APPLY TO ALL TABLES:
(i) Yield, tensile, elongation (EL) and reduction of area (RA) are minimums unless otherwise specified.
(ii) Any values in brackets, [ ], are non-mandatory and are provided for informational purposes only.
(iii) Material column is for reference only. Consult the specification for material requirements.


Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor

PDF


Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

Hardness Converstions and Approximated Tensile Strength


  1. Abstract

    Amongst other things, ASTM A370 and ISO 18265 both cover hardness conversions and provide approximations for steel tensile strength, yet, curiously these specs do not always agree when discussing this topic; they give slightly different values. So, which is right? Which do we use? The answer is... both; we use both and we understand these conversions were developed from empirical testing of variuos steels & chemistries and those tests were conducted by people, who, are inharently flawed. Nonetheless, the conversions are usually quite similar when comparing ASTM A370 to ISO 18265.

  2. Discussion

    Different hardness scales exist to measure different types of materials; e.g., a very hard material such as 300M (~300 ksi, tensile) cannot be measured on the same scale as an elastomer (rubber) as the hardness disparity would simply be too great. Ductile cast irons do not have a homogenous microsctucture (they have nodes, pearlite and ferrite) therefore using a small indenter, such as Vickers micro-hardness, is not indicative of the bulk hardness; this is why the 10 mm ball indenter of a Brinell hardness test is typically called out for measuring castings. In summary, indent geometry and the applied force vary to compensate for what type of material is being measured for hardness. The product specification, or mechanical property specification, should dictate the appropriate hardness scale for product testing. A brief overview of indent geometry:

    • Rockwell Hardness A (HRA), C (HRC) and D (HRD) scales have a 120° cone shaped indent.
    • Rockwell Hardness B (HRB) and F (HRF) scales have sphere shaped indent which have a 1/16" diameter.
    • Superficial Rockwell scales HR15N, HR30N, HR45N, HR15T, HR30T and HR45T are used for shallow indents such as measuring thin mateirals or surface hardness. The "N" and "T" stand for cone shaped and 1/16" diameter ball shaped indenters, respectively.
    • Vickers hardness (HV) scale has a pyramidal shaped indent.
    • Knoop hardness (Knoop) scale has a pyramidal diamond indent.
    • Brinell hardness (Brinell) scale, similar to HRB and HRF, has a sphere shaped indent though the sphere diameter is 10 mm.

    Jump to:

  3. Tables:

TABLE 1: ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
Su
KSI
Su
MPa
HVHRCHRBBrinellKnoopHRDHRAHRFHR15NHR30NHR45NHR15THR30THR45T
...... 94068 ......920...85.6... 93.284.475.4... ... ...
...... 90067 ......895...85.0... 92.983.674.2... ... ...
...... 86566 ......870...84.5... 92.582.873.3... ... ...
...... 83265 ...739846...83.9... 92.281.972.0... ... ...
...... 80064 ...722822...83.4... 91.881.171.0... ... ...
...... 77263 ...706799...82.8... 91.480.169.9... ... ...
...... 74662 ...688776...82.3... 91.179.368.8... ... ...
...... 72061 ...670754...81.8... 90.778.467.7... ... ...
...... 69760 ...654732...81.2... 90.277.566.6... ... ...
351242067459 ...634710...80.7... 89.876.665.5... ... ...
338233065358 ...615690...80.1... 89.375.764.3... ... ...
325224063357 ...595670...79.6... 88.974.863.2... ... ...
313216061356 ...577650...79.0... 88.373.962.0... ... ...
301207059555 ...560630...78.5... 87.973.060.9... ... ...
292201057754 ...543612...78.0... 87.472.059.8... ... ...
283195056053 ...525594...77.4... 86.971.258.6... ... ...
273188054452 ...512576...76.8... 86.470.257.4... ... ...
264182052851 ...496558...76.3... 85.969.456.1... ... ...
255176051350 ...482542...75.9... 85.568.555.0... ... ...
246170049849 ...468526...75.2... 85.067.653.8... ... ...
238164048448 ...455510...74.7... 84.566.752.5... ... ...
229158047147 ...442495...74.1... 83.965.851.4... ... ...
221152045846 ...432480...73.6... 83.564.850.3... ... ...
215148044645 ...421466...73.1... 83.064.049.0... ... ...
208143043444 ...409452...72.5... 82.563.147.8... ... ...
201139042343 ...400438...72.0... 82.062.246.7... ... ...
194134041242 ...390426...71.5... 81.561.345.5... ... ...
188130040241 ...381414...70.9... 80.960.444.3... ... ...
182125039240 ...371402...70.4... 80.459.543.1... ... ...
177122038239 ...362391...69.9... 79.958.641.9... ... ...
171118037238 ...353380...69.4... 79.457.740.8... ... ...
166114036337 ...344370...68.9... 78.856.839.6... ... ...
161111035436 ...336360...68.4... 78.355.938.4... ... ...
156108034535 ...327351...67.9... 77.755.037.2... ... ...
152105033634 ...319342...67.4... 77.254.236.1... ... ...
149103032733 ...311334...66.8... 76.653.334.9... ... ...
146101031832 ...301326...66.3... 76.152.133.7... ... ...
141970 31031 ...294318...65.8... 75.651.332.5... ... ...
138950 30230 ...286311...65.3... 75.050.431.3... ... ...
135930 29429 ...279304...64.6... 74.549.530.1... ... ...
131900 28628 ...271297...64.3... 73.948.628.9... ... ...
128880 27927 ...264290...63.8... 73.347.727.8... ... ...
125860 27226 ...258284...63.3... 72.846.826.7... ... ...
123850 26625 ...253278...62.8... 72.245.925.5... ... ...
119820 26024 ...247272...62.4... 71.645.024.3... ... ...
117810 25423 ...243266...62.0... 71.044.023.1... ... ...
116800 240...100240251...61.5... ... ... ... 93.183.172.9
115790 24822 ...237261...61.5... 70.543.222.0... ... ...
114785 234...99 234246...60.9... ... ... ... 92.882.571.9
112770 24321 ...231256...61.0... 69.942.320.7... ... ...
110760 23820 ...226251...60.5... 69.441.519.6... ... ...
109750 228...98 228241...60.2... ... ... ... 92.581.870.9
104715 222...97 222236...59.5... ... ... ... 92.181.169.9
102705 216...96 216231...58.9... ... ... ... 91.880.468.9
100690 210...95 210226...58.3... ... ... ... 91.579.867.9
98 675 205...94 205221...57.6... ... ... ... 91.279.166.9
94 650 200...93 200216...57.0... ... ... ... 90.878.465.9
92 635 195...92 195211...56.4... ... ... ... 90.577.864.8
90 620 190...91 190206...55.8... ... ... ... 90.277.163.8
89 615 185...90 185201...55.2... ... ... ... 89.976.462.8
88 605 180...89 180196...54.6... ... ... ... 89.575.861.8
86 590 176...88 176192...54.0... ... ... ... 89.275.160.8
84 580 172...87 172188...53.4... ... ... ... 88.974.459.8
83 570 169...86 169184...52.8... ... ... ... 88.673.858.8
82 565 165...85 165180...52.3... ... ... ... 88.273.157.8
81 560 162...84 162176...51.7... ... ... ... 87.972.456.8
80 550 159...83 159173...51.1... ... ... ... 87.671.855.8
77 530 156...82 156170...50.6... ... ... ... 87.371.154.8
73 505 153...81 153167...50.0... ... ... ... 86.970.453.8
72 495 150...80 150164...49.5... ... ... ... 86.669.752.8
70 485 147...79 147161...48.9... ... ... ... 86.369.151.8
69 475 144...78 144158...48.4... ... ... ... 86.068.450.8
68 470 141...77 141155...47.9... ... ... ... 85.667.749.8
67 460 139...76 139152...47.3... ... ... ... 85.367.148.8
66 455 137...75 137150...46.899.6... ... ... 85.066.447.8
65 450 135...74 135147...46.399.1... ... ... 84.765.746.8
64 440 132...73 132145...45.898.5... ... ... 84.365.145.8
63 435 130...72 130143...45.398.0... ... ... 84.064.444.8
62 425 127...71 127141...44.897.4... ... ... 83.763.743.8
61 420 125...70 125139...44.396.8... ... ... 83.463.142.8
60 415 123...69 123137...43.896.2... ... ... 83.062.441.8
59 405 121...68 121135...43.395.6... ... ... 82.761.740.8
58 400 119...67 119133...42.895.1... ... ... 82.461.039.8
57 395 117...66 117131...42.394.5... ... ... 82.160.438.7
56 385 116...65 116129...41.893.9... ... ... 81.859.737.7
...... 114...64 114127...41.493.4... ... ... 81.459.036.7
...... 112...63 112125...40.992.8... ... ... 81.158.435.7
...... 110...62 110124...40.492.2... ... ... 80.857.734.7
...... 108...61 108122...40.091.7... ... ... 80.557.033.7
...... 107...60 107120...39.591.1... ... ... 80.156.432.7
...... 106...59 106118...39.090.5... ... ... 79.855.731.7
...... 104...58 104117...38.690.0... ... ... 79.555.030.7
...... 103...57 103115...38.189.4... ... ... 79.254.429.7
...... 101...56 101114...37.788.8... ... ... 78.853.728.7
...... 100...55 100112...37.288.2... ... ... 78.553.027.7
...... ......54 ...111...36.887.7... ... ... 78.252.426.7
...... ......53 ...110...36.387.1... ... ... 77.951.725.7
...... ......52 ...109...35.986.5... ... ... 77.551.024.7
...... ......51 ...108...35.586.0... ... ... 77.250.323.7
...... ......50 ...107...35.085.4... ... ... 76.949.722.7
...... ......49 ...106...34.684.8... ... ... 76.649.021.7
...... ......48 ...105...34.184.3... ... ... 76.248.320.7
...... ......47 ...104...33.783.7... ... ... 75.947.719.7
...... ......46 ...103...33.383.1... ... ... 75.647.018.7
...... ......45 ...102...32.982.6... ... ... 75.346.317.7
...... ......44 ...101...32.482.0... ... ... 74.945.716.7
...... ......43 ...100...32.081.4... ... ... 74.645.015.7
...... ......42 ...99 ...31.680.8... ... ... 74.344.314.7
...... ......41 ...98 ...31.280.3... ... ... 74.043.713.6
...... ......40 ...97 ...30.779.7... ... ... 73.643.012.6
...... ......39 ...96 ...30.379.1... ... ... 73.342.311.6
...... ......38 ...95 ...29.978.6... ... ... 73.041.610.6
...... ......37 ...94 ...29.578.0... ... ... 72.741.09.6
...... ......36 ...93 ...29.177.4... ... ... 72.340.38.6
...... ......35 ...92 ...28.776.9... ... ... 72.039.67.6
...... ......34 ...91 ...28.276.3... ... ... 71.739.06.6
...... ......33 ...90 ...27.875.7... ... ... 71.438.35.6
...... ......32 ...89 ...27.475.2... ... ... 71.037.64.6
...... ......31 ...88 ...27.074.6... ... ... 70.737.03.6
...... ......30 ...87 ...26.674.0... ... ... 70.436.32.6

COMMENTS:
"..." indicates undefined values.
Columns for KSI and MPa are the approximate ultimate tensile strength.
Note: Table 1, above, combines two tables from ASTM A370. Between 116 to 110 ksi (790 to 760 MPa) are the beginning and end, respectively, of the intregration of these two ASTM A370 tables. Notice how tensile strengths remain linear through this range while HV, Brinell, Knoop and HRA are non-linear. When it comes to these regions, the user of these tables will need to determine how to best utilize this information.

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TABLE 2: ISO 18265 Metallic Materials - Conversion of Hardness Values
KSIMPaHVHRCHRBBrinellKnoopHRDHRAHRFHR15NHR30NHR45NHR15THR30THR45T
...... 94068.0... ... ...76.985.6... 93.284.475.4.........
...... 92067.5... ... ...76.585.3... 93.084.074.8.........
...... 90067.0... ... ...76.185.0... 92.983.674.2.........
...... 88066.4... ... ...75.784.7... 92.783.173.6.........
...... 86065.9... ... ...75.384.4... 92.582.773.1.........
...... 84065.3... ... ...74.884.1... 92.382.272.2.........
...... 82064.7... ... ...74.383.8... 92.181.771.8.........
...... 80064.0... ... ...73.883.4... 91.881.171.0.........
...... 78063.3... ... ...73.383.0... 91.580.470.2.........
...... 76062.5... ... ...72.682.6... 91.279.769.4.........
...... 74061.8... ... ...72.182.2... 91.079.168.6.........
...... 72061.0... ... ...71.581.8... 90.778.467.7.........
...... 70060.1... ... ...70.881.3... 90.377.666.7.........
...... 69059.7... ... ...70.581.1... 90.177.266.2.........
...... 68059.2... ... ...70.180.8... 89.876.865.7.........
...... 67058.8... ... ...69.880.6... 89.776.465.3.........
...... 66058.3... ... ...69.480.3... 89.575.964.7.........
316218065057.8... 618 ...69.080.0... 89.275.564.1.........
311214564057.3... 608 ...68.779.8... 89.075.163.5.........
305210563056.8... 599 ...68.379.5... 88.874.663.0.........
300207062056.3... 589 ...67.979.2... 88.574.262.4.........
294203061055.7... 580 ...67.578.9... 88.273.761.7.........
289199560055.2... 570 ...67.078.6... 88.073.261.2.........
284195559054.7... 561 ...66.778.4... 87.872.760.5.........
278192058054.1... 551 ...66.278.0... 87.572.159.9.........
273188057053.6... 542 ...65.877.8... 87.271.759.3.........
268184556053.0... 532 ...65.477.4... 86.971.258.6.........
263181055052.3... 523 ...64.877.0... 86.670.557.8.........
257177554051.7... 513 ...64.476.7... 86.370.057.0.........
252174053051.1... 504 ...63.976.4... 86.069.556.2.........
247170052050.5... 494 ...63.576.1... 85.769.055.6.........
241166551049.8... 485 ...62.975.7... 85.468.354.7.........
236163050049.1... 475 ...62.275.3... 85.067.753.9.........
231159549048.4... 466 ...61.674.9... 84.767.153.1.........
226155548047.7... 456 ...61.374.5... 84.366.452.2.........
220152047046.9... 447 ...60.774.1... 83.965.751.3.........
215148546046.1... 437 ...60.173.6... 83.664.950.4.........
211145545045.3... 428 ...59.473.3... 83.264.349.4.........
206142044044.5... 418 ...58.872.8... 82.863.548.4.........
201138543043.6... 409 ...58.272.3... 82.362.747.4.........
196135042042.7... 399 ...57.571.8... 81.861.946.4.........
191132041041.8... 390 ...56.871.4... 81.461.145.3.........
187129040040.8... 380 ...56.070.8... 80.860.244.1.........
182125539039.8... 371 ...55.370.3... 80.359.342.9.........
177122038038.8... 361 ...54.469.8... 79.858.441.7.........
173119037037.7... 352 ...53.669.2... 79.257.440.4.........
168115536036.6... 342 ...52.868.7... 78.656.439.1.........
163112535035.5... 333 ...51.968.1... 78.055.437.8.........
159109534034.4... 323 ...51.167.6... 77.454.436.5.........
154106033033.3... 314 ...50.267.0... 76.853.635.2.........
149103032032.2... 304 ...49.466.4... 76.252.333.9.........
144995 31031.0... 295 ...48.465.8... 75.651.332.5.........
140965 30029.8... 285 ...47.565.2... 74.950.231.1.........
138950 29529.2... 280 ...47.164.8... 74.649.730.4.........
135930 29028.5105 276 ...46.564.5... 74.249.029.5.........
133915 28527.8... 271 ...46.064.2... 73.848.428.7.........
131900 28027.1104 266 ...45.363.8... 73.447.827.9.........
128880 27526.4102 261 ...44.963.5... 73.047.227.1.........
125865 27025.6102 257 ...44.363.1... 72.646.426.2.........
123850 26524.8101 252 ...43.762.7... 72.145.725.2.........
121835 26024.0101 247 ...43.162.4... 71.645.024.3.........
119820 25523.1... 242 ...42.262.0... 71.144.223.2.........
116800 25022.299.5238 ...41.761.6115.170.643.422.2.........
114785 24521.3... 233 ...41.161.2... 70.142.521.1.........
112770 24020.398.1228 ...40.360.7114.369.641.719.9.........
110755 235... ... 223 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
107740 230... 96.7219 ...... ... 113.4... ... ... .........
104720 225... 96.0214 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
102705 220... 95.0209 ...... ... 112.4... ... ... .........
100690 215... 94.0204 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
98 675 210... 93.5199 ...... ... 111.3... ... ... .........
96 660 205... 92.5195 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
93 640 200... 91.5190 ...... ... 110.1... ... ... .........
91 625 195... ... 185 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
88 610 190... 89.5181 ...... ... 108.7... ... ... .........
86 595 185... ... 176 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
83 575 180... 87.1171 ...... ... 107.2... ... ... .........
81 560 175... 85.0166 ...... ... 105.5... ... ... .........
79 545 170... 85.0162 ...... ... 105.5... ... ... .........
77 530 165... 81.7156 ...... ... 103.6... ... ... .........
74 510 160... 81.7152 ...... ... 103.6... ... ... .........
72 495 155... ... 147 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
70 480 150... 78.7143 ...... ... 101.4... ... ... .........
67 465 145... ... 138 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
65 450 140... 75.0133 ...... ... 99.0 ... ... ... .........
62 430 135... ... 128 ...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
60 415 130... 71.2124 ...... ... 96.4 ... ... ... .........
58 400 125... 66.7119 ...... ... 93.6 ... ... ... .........
56 385 120... 66.7114 ...... ... 93.6 ... ... ... .........
54 370 115... 62.3109 ...... ... 90.5 ... ... ... .........
51 350 110... 62.3105 ...... ... 90.5 ... ... ... .........
49 335 105... ... 99.8...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
46 320 100... 56.295.0...... ... 87.0 ... ... ... .........
44 305 95 ... 52.090.2...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
41 285 90 ... 48.085.5...... ... 82.6 ... ... ... .........
39 270 85 ... 41.080.7...... ... ... ... ... ... .........
37 255 80 ... ... 76.0...... ... ... ... ... ... .........

COMMENTS:
"..." indicates undefined values.

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Respectfully,
Tyler Olson
Fastener Enthusiast
Polycrew Contributor
Caution: All information in Polycrew Articles is advisory only and the use of this information is voluntary. Polycrew has made a determined effort to present the contents accurately.

Polycrew is a conglomeration of crew members personal and professional intrests as well as articles they have written.